How much do you know about Stephen Hawking? How about David Gross, Jacob Bekenstein, Fred Hoyle, Kip Thorne, Yakov Zel'dovich, John Wheeler, or Roger Penrose? All of these physicists are as accomplished in similar work as Stephen Hawking, and some of them even more so. Why is Hawking the only famous one?
Hawking's mental capability is the first reason, though he was actually not a standout student in high school and early college. He was smart, but didn't invest much time
in his studies. He coasted through undergraduate work at Oxford on intellectual reputation
while spending most of his time drinking and having fun. "Towards the end he was working as much as three hours a day" a friend teased. Nevertheless he went to study with the pre-eminent cosmologist in Britain at the time.
Despite a first year in grad school of paying for his previously lax habits, Hawking quickly picked up theoretical cosmology, even upstaging his publicity-mongering advisor
. Despite (perhaps even finally motivated by) a diagnosis of A.L.S., he began working extremely hard and produced a string of important discoveries in theoretical cosmology. These papers are the base of a reputation that has since grown into far wider realms.
Quantum mechanics governing the atomic world and General Relativity governing the vast distances of space do not get along. Hawking's theory of black hole radiation (building on work by Bekenstein
) was among the first to unite some elements of the two in a famous finding
. He collaborated on ideas and work with many other prominent theoretical cosmologists, including all of those mentioned above. Eventually he was awarded the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics at Oxford, a post once held by none other than Isaac Newton. These sorts of accomplishments, though, are only par for the great physicists named earlier. Why is Hawking the archetypal image of an astrophysicist?
We've all heard of his cleverly titled A Brief History of Time
. Along with Carl Sagan
, Hawking helped introduce the lay public to the fascinating ideas and theories of how the universe has evolved and how it works on the grand scale. Topics such as the Big Bang, the age and expansion of the universe and black holes are explained, with only one equation being mentioned. He has written several more books, covering topics that fascinate everyone: time travel, wormholes, dark matter and Einstein's theories. Hawking was among the first to make the case for these ideas not just to other academics, but to anyone who could read.
Hawking's iconic image is the other major factor in his popularity. The man with the vast brainpower and minuscule muscle power. A person whose only ability is to think, but who is gifted with tremendous intellectual capacity to do it with. Both tragic and triumphant, beholden to a medical condition and surmounting it to achieve greatness.
Hawking now spends most of his time essentially engaged in public relations for science. He meets with presidents and premiers and makes public statements. With unparalleled media coverage and esteem he can make statements
on topics of philosophical importance
that grab headline attention
. His talent and intellect are unimpeachable. His ability to tell stories, as well as the story of his own life, however, are what set him apart from his peers in the public consciousness.